Glucose and Diabetes

What is Glucose?

When we eat our bodies break the food down into organic compounds. Glucose is one of those organic compounds. All the cells present in our body use glucose as a source energy for all their functions like growth, repair and movement. Our blood helps transport glucose to all the cells. This process requires insulin.

What is Insulin?

Insulin is produced by the Beta cells present in the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. When glucose enters our bloodstream, pancreas automatically start producing insulin. They produce it in the right quantity depending upon the glucose in our blood so that it helps to transport the glucose into our cells.

What is the normal glucose level?

Normally the blood glucose level is maintained between 4 and 8 mmol/L (70 to 150 mg/dL). In an average adult whose blood volume is 5 liters. The total amount of glucose in the circulating blood is therefore about 3.3 to 7g Glucose levels rise after meals and are usually lowest in the morning, before the first meal of the day.

How is Diabetes caused?

Diabetes is caused when

  • People don”t produce insulin
  • Don”t produce enough insulin
  • Or become resistant to insulin

In Diabetics, the body fails to maintain blood glucose in the normal range leading to conditions when either the blood sugar levels are persistently high (hyperglycemia) or persistently low (hypoglycemia). This is why diabetics need to be externally administered insulin in order to control their blood sugars.

Blood glucose monitoring

People with diabetes need to constantly monitor their blood sugarg because abnormal levels of glucose in the blood can be fatal for them, both in the long term and short term. They need to keep a check on their diet and exercise regularly. In addition to this they should check their blood sugar levels using a gluco-tester or gluco-meter. Depending on their blood glucose level they should calculate their next insulin dose.