How to Diagnose Diabetes?

Basically, it is a tough job even for the doctors to diagnose diabetes as the diagnosis can only be done on the basis of certain symptoms. There are certain tests, which help in detecting the disease out of which glucose test is the primary one. However, the test results are part and parcel of the information that needs to be taken into account for the proceedings of the diagnosis. Apart from this, the doctors go for physical exam, presence or absence of symptoms and medical history. To be precise enough, there are two primary tests to diagnose the disease which are the direct measurement of glucose levels in the blood during an overnight fast and the other one is the measurement of the body’s ability to handle the excess sugar done after drinking a high glucose drink.

Fasting Blood Glucose (Blood Sugar) Level:
In this type of test, the blood sugar level is test after an overnight fast. If the fasting sugar level is between 70-110mg/dl the person is normal and if the reading shows more than that, then the person is inhibited by diabetes.

The Oral Glucose Tolerance Test
An oral glucose tolerance test is one that is conducted in a doctor’s office or a lab. The person to be tested is provided with a bottle of glucola having 75 grams of glucose in it and 100 grams if it is pregnant woman. Then, there are simultaneous checkups after 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, and 3 hours. For a perfect result, the person should be in good health and physically quiet active and he shouldn’t smoke or drink on that particular morning.

It is the test in which the blood glucose levels are measured five times over a period of 3 hours. In a diabetic, the glucose levels increase to a higher level than normal after the intake of glucose and then it comes down gradually or in a much slower rate due to the very fact that insulin is either not produced and if it is produced, the body doesn’t respond properly to it. But it is not so in a person without diabetes in which the glucose level comes down abruptly. At the same time, the glucose tolerance tests may result in certain diagnoses. A person is said to have normal response if the glucose level is less than or equal to 110 mg/dl and if the 2 hour glucose level is more than 110 and less than 126 mg/dl, he is said to have impaired fasting glucose which is an indication that he may be infected by the disease. On the other hand, if the level is more than 140 but less than 200, the condition is impaired glucose tolerance and ultimately, if the tests show that the glucose level is equal to more than 200 mg/dl, it is a confirmed case of diabetes.

Gestational Diabetes
The gestational diabetes generally affects a woman when she is pregnant and has fasting plasma glucose of more than 105 mg/dl, a 1-hour glucose level of more than 190 mg/dl, a 2-hour glucose level of more than 165 mg/dl, or a 3-hour glucose level of more than 145 mg/dl.