What are Type 1 Diabetes And Type 2 Diabetes?

Diabetics don’t have adequate insulin produced in their body or, the body does not adequately respond to the insulin it is producing. This causes elevated blood sugar levels. Both types of diabetes can have serious complications like heart disease, blindness, kidney failure, stroke and lower-limb amputations, but controlling steps can lower the risk of complications.

Nature of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes
Type1 Diabetes, previously called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or juvenile-onset diabetes, occurs in children and young adults. Such patients need insulin delivered by injections/pump, in order to survive. This Type1 diabetes accounts for 5-10 per cent of all diagnosed cases of diabetes and its risk factors include autoimmune, genetic and environmental factors. Type 2 refers to the adult-onset of diabetes. This develops gradually, usually caused by a combination of impaired emission of insulin and reduced sensitivity of the body’s cells to insulin. This insulin resistance causes excessive rise in blood glucose levels.

Blurring boundaries of Type1 and Type2 diabetes: Changing medical trends
Type 2 diabetes, the disease stage identified with adults, is increasingly being diagnosed in younger people and children in current times and the prevalence is rising at an alarming rate globally. Increase in longevity, sedentary lifestyles and a dramatic upsurge in obesity are probable causes for this rise.

IGT: intermediate state between normal blood glucose control and type2 diabetes
Impaired Glucose Tolerance is an early sign that a person’s carbohydrate metabolism is impaired and carries the risk of developing into type 2 diabetes as both forms are a result of impaired secretion of insulin and insulin resistance.

How are Type1 and Type2 diabetes diagnosed?
Patients with type1 diabetes develop symptoms faster over a short span of time and their condition often diagnosed in a crisis. Urinalysis of an acutely ill type 1 diabetic patient will reveal excessively high glucose and ketones levels. (The breaking down of fat and muscles produce Ketones, which can be toxic at high levels.) These Ketones in the blood can cause Acidosis or low blood pH. Patients with type2 diabetes usually develop symptoms gradually. Their diagnosis is possible when the blood glucose is 126 mg/dl, or higher, on two successive occasions after fasting for eight or more hours at a stretch. Alternatively, the blood glucose level reading of 200 mg/dl, or higher, at any time between meals and accompanied with symptoms of diabetes (increased thirst, urination, and fatigue) can be criteria for testing. The final option is to have the patient’s blood glucose level drawn two hours after drinking a 75-gram glucose solution to check if it is 200 mg/dl or higher.